Varicose Veins


Varicose veins are visible and bulging veins which are more common in the legs and thighs, but can develop anywhere in the body. They are dark purple or blue in color, and appear twisted and bulging.

No posts found.

Signs and Symptoms

Many people with varicose veins do not have any physical symptoms and they usually do not feel any pain. Varicose veins are simply cosmetic concerns for many. But painful signs and symptoms occur, which may include:

  • An achy or heavy feeling in your legs
  • Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in your lower legs
  • Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time
  • Itching around one or more of your veins
  • Fatigue


There are many different treatments available for varicose veins. These treatments are offered based upon the size of the varicose veins, the presence of any symptoms, and the location of the veins. Briefly, treatments include:

  • Compression stockings
  • Leg elevation while sitting or sleeping
  • Sclerotherapy (injection of a liquid into the vein)
  • Laser therapy which sends strong bursts of light onto the vein that the vein slowly fade and disappear
  • Surgery (removal of the varicose veins, or vein stripping).
  • In general, sclerotherapy and laser therapy are helpful in treating spider veins (telangiectasias), while sclerotherapy and surgery may be a better options for larger varicose veins.

Time in Hospital

Outpatient / Day case



Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that develops in melanocytes, the pigment responsible in giving color to your skin. It can develop anywhere on your body, but they most often develop in areas that have had exposure to the sun, such as your back, legs, arms and face.

Melanomas can also occur in areas that don’t receive much sun exposure, such as the soles of your feet, palms of your hands and on fingernail beds. It may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) and cause serious illness and death. Those who are at an increased risk of having melanoma are:

  • Adults with large numbers of moles (at least 50 or more)
  • Adults who freckle
  • Adults with unusual moles (larger than 1cm in diameter with irregular outline or irregular pigmentation)
  • Adults with a history of severe sunburn
  • Adults with a family history of melanoma or those who have already had one primary melanoma are at increased risk

No posts found.

Early Detection of Malignant Melanoma

Major Signs

If an existing mole gets larger or a new one is growing
If the mole has an irregular outline
If the colours are mixed shades of brown or black

Minor Signs

If the mole is bigger than the blunt end of a pencil
If it is inflamed or has a reddish edge
If it is bleeding, oozing or crusting
If it starts to feel different: for example, itching or painful


Surgery to remove affected lymph nodes:
The removal of nearby lymph nodes may be recommended if melanoma spread to nodes and glands.

Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells which can be administered intravenously, in pill form or both, so that it travels throughout your body.

Radiation therapy:
This treatment uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells.

Biological therapy (immunotherapy):
Biological therapy boosts your immune system to help your body fight cancer. These treatments are made of substances produced by the body or similar substances produced in a laboratory.



Melasma is a patchy brown, tan, or blue-gray skin discoloration, particularly common in women during the reproductive years or those who are taking oral or patch contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy medications. It typically appears on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of women 20-50 years of age. Most people with melasma have a history of daily or intermittent sun exposure.


Chemical Peels:
Melasma treatments using chemical peels will generally use acidic compounds to remove increased levels of melanin in the skin. In this type of remedy, a number of different acids can be used including: trichloroacetic, azelaic, glycolic, lactic and fruit extracts. The strong the chemical peeling agent is, the higher the rate of success to produce a noticeable difference in discoloration. While they have a higher success rate, they also carry heavier risks including scarring, peeling, or worsening of the discoloration.

Skin Lightening Creams:
The use of hydroquinone or natural lightening agents to lighten skin for a less noticeable difference is another effective alternative in treating melasma. Other over the counter alternatives to hydroquinone that do not have side effects is the combination of kojic acid, alpha arbutin, and licorice, and other lightening agents and moisturizers.

Laser Melasma Treatment:
Laser skin rejuvenation melasma treatment is the last resort for many individuals who have tried both chemical peels and skin lightening creams to no avail. Laser technologies used to treat melasma have advanced significantly in the recent years. Within this form of melasma treatment comes a choice of Fraxel Dual Laser Technology, Intense Pulsed Light, Q-switched laser, and topical medicines.

The use of one or more of these has proven to be the most effective form of melasma treatment available. While laser application will not necessarily cure the condition, they will clear the condition with frequent treatment and medication.